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: World War II : 1944 :

 

ALLIED FORCES ATTACK THE GUSTAV LINE :

Date : 12th January 1944.

General Juin (Free French Expeditionary Corps) launched an attack the Gustav line near Cassino, crossing the Garigliano river.

 

 

SOVIET ADVANCES : LENINGRAD SIEGE ENDED :

Date : January 1944.

A new Soviet offensive on the northern part of the eastern front relieved the besieged city of Leningrad, as the Red Army advanced pursuing the retreating Nazis.

Date : 19th January 1944.

The Soviet Red Army advanced on the eastern front and captured the industrial city of Novgorod, approximately 100 miles south of Leningrad.

 

 

ALLIED ITALIAN CAMPAIGN : THE ANZIO LANDINGS :

Date : 22nd January 1944.

Allied forces landed at Anzio, sixty miles behind the German defensive position known as the Gustav line in central Italy.

 

 

SECRET WEAPONS PRODUCTION :

Date : January 1944.

The first 52 V2 rockets leave the "Mittelwerk". In the same month 679 prisoners die or are killed in the slave camps that built the rockets.

Slave Camps :

 

 

MONTE CASSINO MONASTERY DESTROYED :

Date : 15th February 1944.

The Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino was totally destroyed in an Allied air raid. Although it is said that the Germans had already retreated before the attack. After the attack German forces returned, as the bombing had made the monastery a stronger defensive position within the craters, rubble and ruins created by the air raid.

 

 

GERMAN COUNTER ATTACK AT ANZIO :

Date : 16th February 1944.

Kesselring launched a counter attack against the Allies at Anzio, in the hope to push the invading Allied force back into the sea.

 

 

US ADVANCES IN THE PACIFIC :

Date : Early February 1944.

US forces advanced and landed on the Marshall Islands of Kwajalein, Engebi, Eniwetok and Parry in the Pacific.

Date : 17th-18th February 1944.

US carrier fleet launches air strike on the Japanese base at Truk in the Carolines, and completely destroyed the facility beyond use.

Date : 22nd February 1944.

US forces defeated Japanese opposition and captured the Marshall Islands of Kwajalein, Engebi, Eniwetok and Parry in the Pacific.

 

 

DORA CREMATORIUM :

Date : February 1944.

During the month of February 1944 the Nazis started construction of the crematorium at the slave camp Dora.

 

 

RAF RAID ON HAMBURG :

Date : 18th March 1944.

RAF Bomber Command attacked the German city of Hamburg. 3000 tons of bombs were dropped on the city to devastating effect causing a firestorm.

 

 

SOVIET ADVANCES :

Date : 2nd April 1944.

The Soviet Red Army crossed the border into Romania on the eastern front, advancing towards the Romanian Ploesti oil fields.

 

 

JAPANESE OFFENSIVE :

Date : April 1944.

Japanese renews offensive in Burma, advancing and entering India. Japanese forces put the towns of Imphal and Kohima in India under siege.

General Slim in command of the British 14th Army held both towns during the siege that lasted for the month of April 1944.

 

 

CRIMEA RETURNED TO SOVIET CONTROL :

Date : 9th May 1944.

The Soviet Red Army advanced on the eastern front in the south and had captured the Crimean port of Sebastopol, on the Black Sea. The Soviets had driven the Nazis out of the Crimea and had regained the territory.

 

 

MONTE CASSINO MONASTERY CAPTURED :

Date : 18th May 1944.

Free Polish troops captured the Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino in central Italy.

 

 

ALLIED FORCES ADVANCE IN BURMA :

Date : 2nd June 1944.

British General Stilwell, US General Merrill (Merrill's Marauders) and Chinese forces under Chiang Kai-shek, attack and advanced from north Burma, besieged and captured the Burmese town of Myitkyina.

Date : 3rd June 1944.

The sieges at Imphal and Kohima ends in defeat for the Japanese forces and the towns in India were relieved by Allied forces.

The defeat is the first major defeat for the Japanese army, and the Japanese army was thrown into a retreat back into Burma.

 

 

ALLIED FORCES ENTER ROME :

Date : 4th June 1944.

Allied troops liberated the Italian capital Rome. The success is over shadowed by the D-day landings in Normandy, France.

 

 

D-DAY : OPERATION OVERLORD :

Date : 6th June 1944.

D-day : The Allied invasion of mainland Europe landed on the beaches of Normandy in northern France. The Allied force launched the invasion from southern England, using over 6,000 ships to transport troops and equipment.

The successful operation established a beach head on the mainland of Europe, and creating the long awaited western front.

Operation Overlord :

 

 

SECRET WEAPONS ATTACK LONDON : V1 MISSILE :

Date : 13th June 1944.

One of the secret weapons developed at Peenemünde is unleashed on the English capital London. Hitler's first V weapon is the V1 pulse jet missile, and the attacks are the start of a second Blitz that the British populace had to endure.

The V1 was an indiscriminate terror weapon.

Secret Weapons :

 

 

ALLIED ADVANCES :

Date : 15th June 1944.

US marines landed on the island of Saipan, part of the Marianas group in the south Pacific. Other islands in this group were Guam and Tinian. Days after the landings the Japanese sent a carrier task force to support its troops fighting on the island.

The air attack would be known as the 'Marianas Turkey Shoot' as the Americans delivered such a devastating blow to the Japanese naval air forces. The Japanese suffered a heavy defeat losing over 300 planes.

Date : 18th June 1944.

British 8th Army captured the Italian town of Assisi, situated in the mountainous region of Umbria in central Apennines, approximately 70 miles north of the Italian capital Rome.

Date : 27th June 1944.

American forces broke out from the Normandy beach heads advanced, swept west, then north and captured the French port of Cherbourg, on the northern point of the Contentin peninsula, northern France.

Cherbourg became the first port captured by the Allied forces, although severely damaged by the defending Germans, the port would be used to supply the advance of Allied forces advancing inland.

Date : 3rd July 1944.

The Soviet Red Army advanced on the central eastern front and captured the Belorussian capital of Minsk.

Date : 4th July 1944.

The British 14th Army under General Slim turned a defensive position to an offensive action. The town of Imphal had been under siege during April and June 1944, and was relieved by Allied forces.

The British offensive defeated Japanese forces at the town Imphal, capital of the Manipur state in India, forcing General Sato's Japanese troops to retreat further into Burma.

Date : 9th July 1944.

The French town of Caen falls to the British and Canadian forces, who then continued to advance south to link up with American forces advancing from the south-west heading north. The manoeuvre will cut of and trap most of the opposing German force in what is known as the Falaise Pocket.

The Falaise Pocket :

The island of Saipan is captured by the American forces, after a bitter battle was fought between US and Japanese forces.

Date : 18th July 1944.

Allied forces advanced south inland 20 miles from the Normandy beach head, and US troops reach the French town of St. Lô.

Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo is blamed for a series of defeats inflicted on Japanese forces by the Allies. The heavy blow given to Japan's naval pilots in the invasion of Saipan, and the 'Marianas Turkey Shoot' forces his, and his Cabinet's resignation.

 

 

ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT ON HITLER :

Date : 20th July 1944.

During a meeting at Hitler's eastern headquarters the plot to kill Hitler unfolded. A time-bomb was left under the conference table and killed several Generals and destroyed the room, but Hitler survived the assassination attempt.

 

 

US FORCES ADVANCE ON THE MARIANAS ISLANDS :

Date : 21st July 1944.

After capturing Saipan, US Marines targeted other islands of the Marianas group. US Marines landed on the island of Guam.

Date : 24th July 1944.

US Marines landed on the island of Tinian, also part of the Marianas group in the south Pacific.

By August the Marianas Islands were in the hands of the Americans, and all Japanese forces on Saipan, Guam and Tinian had been defeated.

 

 

THE WARSAW RISING :

Date : 1st August 1944.

With the Soviet Red Army advancing from the east the Polish Resistance instigated an uprising, and attacked the German forces that occupied the Polish capital Warsaw.

 

 

OPERATION ANVIL :

Date : 15th August 1944.

The Allied invasion of southern France, named Operation Anvil. Allied forces, including Free French, landed at St. Tropez on the French Riviera, under the command of the General Patch.

The invasion was lightly opposed by German forces, who had been ordered by the German command, General Model, to retreat north.

The Allied objectives would be to advance north linking with Allied forces advancing east in northern France, creating a broad western front.

 

 

ALLIED ADVANCES :

Date : 24th August 1944.

German commander General von Choltitz was ordered by Hitler to destroy Paris if he could not defend it. But the German General ignored Hitler's order and surrendered German forces in Paris to General Leclerq and Free French forces under his command.

Date : 25th August 1944.

With the French capital liberated and under Allied control, General De Gaulle leader of the Free French entered the French Paris.

Date : 31st August 1944.

The Soviet Red Army advanced on the south eastern front and captured the Romanian capital of Bucharest.

 

 

ALLIED GAINS :

Date : 3rd September 1944.

The Belgium capital of Brussels was liberated by Allied forces.

Date : 4th September 1944.

The Allies liberated the Belgium port of Antwerp, an important target. The port could be used for the swift supply to advancing Allied forces, and at the same time shortened the supply line to the Allied front.

Date : 5th September 1944.

The Soviet Union declared war on Bulgaria.

 

 

A NEW SECRET WEAPON ATTACKS LONDON : V2 ROCKET :

Date : 8th September 1944.

The Nazis start their next generation of secret weapons and fire the first V2's at Paris and London.

Secret Weapons : First V2 Strike On London :

 

 

THE BATTLE OF ARNHEM :

Date : 17th September 1944.

Allied forces attempted to outflank Nazi forces in western Europe, Holland. An airborne mission named Operation Market Garden dropped commandos behind the enemy lines. The operation failed and the Allied forces took heavy casualties from strong German defences.

The Battle of Arnhem :

 

 

DORA-MITTELBAU SLAVE CAMP :

Date : 1st October 1944.

Dora grows large enough to be considered a concentration camp and is given the name Dora-Mittelbau and 30 sub-camps are built.

Slave Camps :

 

 

WARSAW RISING IS CRUSHED :

Date : 2nd October 1944.

Warsaw resistance which had erupted in August against the German garrison, was crushed. Polish Home Army surrendered to the Nazis. Hitler ordered Warsaw to be levelled.

The Red Army had halted its advance close to Warsaw, giving reasons that the advance had out stretched its supply line. Even Allied air supply to the Warsaw freedom fighters from Soviet held territory was refused by Stalin.

Post war position of Poland was in consideration, and Stalin allowed the Nazis to crush Polish resistance.

 

 

ALLIED ADVANCES :

Date : 14th October 1944.

Allied forces liberated the Greek capital of Athens.

Date : 20th October 1944.

US forces landed in the Philippines. General MacArthur had fulfilled his promise of returning to the Philippines, as a beach head was established on the island of Leyte.

Soviet troops and Tito's partisans entered the Serbian capital of Belgrade. During World War II Serbia had been under a puppet government set up by the Germans.

Date : 23rd-26th October 1944.

US and Japanese fleets clash in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. On 20th October General MacArthur's forces had landed on Leyte, and the Japanese fleets engaged to destroy the landings and clashed with Admiral Halsey's American fleet.

The defeat at Leyte was devastating for the Japanese navy, and after the battle the US navy dominated the Pacific.

The Soviet Red Army extended its eastern front and entered East Prussia.

 

 

ALLIED FORCES ENTER GERMANY :

Date : 18th November 1944.

As the Soviets advanced in the east, in the west Allied forces crossed the German border and advanced into the Third Reich.

 

 

THE BATTLE OF THE BULGE :

Date : 16th December 1944.

A German offensive to split Allied forces on the western front, and drive the Allies back to the English Channel. The clash is known as the Battle of the Bulge.

Hitler's offensive would be a replica of Colonel-General Heinz Guderian's 1940 manoeuvre, thrusting through the Ardennes dividing the Allied forces on the broad western front. The difference in this operation would be for the Nazi forces to sweep north and capture the Belgium port of Antwerp. The port was at this stage a vital entry into Europe in supplying the Allied push east.

Bad weather aided the German offensive and the hindered the Allied intelligence, and any Allied air attacks on the advancing German force.

Date : 26th December 1944.

The town of Bastogne had become besieged, but the American forces held out under the command of General McAuliffe. On the 26th December General Patton relieved Bastogne, and with the change in weather conditions for the better, Allied air attacks on the advancing Germans changed the tide of the battle.

The German offensive was stopped, and Hitler's gamble had failed.

 

 

MITTELWERK DEATH FACTORY :

Date : December 1944.

Further armament programs were transferred to the "Mittelwerk" death factory.

Slave Camps :

 

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For those visitors that have entered to this site, directly to this page, we would like to inform you that this page is part of a series of pages, within a section that acts as a backdrop to 'The Puzzle' project. 'The Puzzle' is a musical project that looks at different events from the 20th-21st Century.

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