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: World War II : 1943 :

 

AXIS FORCES IN RETREAT :

Date : 2nd-3rd January 1943.

Allied forces gained successes in both theatres. Soviet troops forced the Nazis to retreat from the Caucasus in the south of the Soviet Union.

In the Pacific Allied forces gain the New Guinea town of Buna as the Japanese are forced out.

 

 

CASABLANCA CONFERENCE :

Date : 14th January 1943.

British Prime Minister Churchill and US President Roosevelt meet for a conference in Casablanca, Morocco. The conference decided the Allies next move, the invasion of Sicily and the prelude to invading occupied mainland Europe, Italy, what Churchill called 'the soft under belly'.

At the conference US President Roosevelt announced the 'Unconditional Surrender' doctrine.

 

 

BRITISH FORCES ADVANCE IN NORTH AFRICA :

Date : 23rd January 1943.

With Rommel's force in retreat and occupying Tunisia, the British 8th Army in pursuit entered Tripoli, Libya.

 

 

STALINGRAD LIBERATED :

Date : 2nd February 1943.

The German 6th Army under Field Marshal von Paulus surrendered to General Zhukov's Soviet force at Stalingrad. This bitter battle was the turning point on the eastern front, and thought by some as the turning point of World War II.

Von Paulus' 6th Army had been surrounded and cut off. An airlift to supply the besieged 6th Army by the Luftwaffe had failed. Attempts by the Germans to break through and relieve von Paulus also failed.

Hitler promoted General von Paulus to Field Marshal during the Stalingrad battle, as no German Field Marshal had ever surrendered in battle, and Hitler had ordered General von Paulus to hold Stalingrad at any cost, after requests to surrender by Zhukov's Red Army.

 

 

ALLIED ADVANCES :

Date : 8th February 1943.

General Wingate's Chindits made their first expedition into Burma. The force would go deep into the jungle behind Japanese lines to carry out operations over long periods, being supplied by air.

General Zhukov's advancing Russians recapture the city of Kursk.

Date : 14th February 1943.

Rommel attacks US forces advancing from the west at Faid in Tunisia. Allied forces having closed the net, Monty's British 8th Army continued to advance from the east.

General Wingate's Chindits cross the Chindwin river in Burma.

The Nazis in retreat as the Russians advance on the eastern front and retake the city of Rostov.

 

 

ALLIED NORTH AFRICAN ADVANCES :

Date : 6th March 1943.

Rommel's force attacked the British 8th Army advancing from the west at Medenine, in Tunisia. Failing to defeat the British, the then ill Rommel left north Africa and returned back to Germany. Command of the Axis forces in north Africa was handed over to General von Arnim.

Date : 29th April 1943.

British 8th Army breached the Axis Mareth line defence, and continued its advance east to link up with Allied forces advancing from the west in Tunisia.

43 Allied merchant ships were lost to German U-boats in the month of March 1943.

 

 

YAMAMOTO KILLED :

Date : 18th April 1943.

The Allies had broken the Japanese code and intercepted a message that Admiral Yamamoto would be inspecting Japanese bases in the Pacific, and detailed times and dates when he was travelling.

A force of Eighteen US P.38s were tasked to 'seek and destroy' the Admiral's plane. The mission was a success and Admiral Yamamoto was shot down and killed. His death was a massive loss to the Japanese.

 

 

WARSAW JEWISH GHETTO UPRISING :

Date : 19th April 1943.

The Warsaw Ghetto was created by the Nazi in 1939, after the defeat of Poland. An area within Poland's capital city that the Nazis crowded with Jews.

On the 19th April 1943, Nazi SS officers attempted to round up and transport those Jews within the ghetto to camps, as the Soviet Army advanced.

The Nazis faced resistance as the Jewish uprising erupted.

 

 

NORTH AFRICAN ALLIED ADVANCES :

Date : 21st April 1943.

British 8th Army's successful breach of the Mareth line from the east and occupied the port of Sfax. Then Monty's 8th Army attacked and defeated Axis forces at the Enfidaville Line in Tunisia.

Date : 7th May 1943.

The Allied forces advanced from the west and take Tunis and Bizerta in Tunisia. The Axis force was trapped as the net closed, and brought the north African campaign to an end.

Victory to the Allies.

 

 

US ADVANCES IN THE PACIFIC :

Date : 11th May 1943.

US troops started the liberation of the Aleutian Islands, in the Bering Sea, North Pacific. The volcanic chain of islands passed into American possession with the purchase of Alaska in 1867.

The Japanese occupied the islands of Attu and Kiska in 1942, and was retaken by US forces 11th May 1943. Marked as the only time that any ground fighting on American soil during World War II.

 

 

NORTH AFRICA LIBERATED BY THE ALLIES :

Date : 13th May 1943.

Axis forces led by General von Arnim surrender to the Allies in Tunisia. 250,000 Nazi and Italian troops became prisoners of war, as the north African campaign ends.

The Allies then prepared for the next stage, the invasion of Sicily, as agreed by British Prime Minister Churchill and US President Roosevelt at the Casablanca conference back in January 1943.

 

 

WARSAW JEWISH UPRISING CRUSHED :

Date : 16th May 1943.

The Warsaw uprising crushed by the Nazis. Many of the Jews escaped through the sewers of the city, and continued the fight against the Nazis by enlisting with the Polish resistance. Those that did not escape were killed.

 

 

GERMAN DAMS ATTACKED BY RAF :

Date : 17th May 1943.

RAF squadron 617 under Wing Commander Guy Gibson attacked the Moehne and Eder Dams in the Ruhr Valley. Flying at a height of sixty feet the squadron breached the dams using the Barnes Wallis' 'Bouncing Bomb'.

The mission was to flood the Ruhr Valley and hinder German industrial production. The mission was a success but came at a very high price.

 

 

ALLIED ADVANCES IN THE PACIFIC :

Date : 29th June 1943.

US forces led by General MacArthur land at Nassau Bay, New Guinea. Australian forces advance inland its targets were the towns of Lae and Salamaua.

 

 

ALLIED GAINS : EUROPEAN THEATRE :

Date : 4th July 1943.

Battle of Kursk. The German offensive named Operation Citadel is known to be the largest tank battle in history, as German and Soviet tanks clashed. The Soviet victory was a crushing blow for Hitler.

Date : 9th-10th July 1943.

Allied troops victorious against Rommel's Afrika Korps in north Africa invade the island of Sicily. The British 8th Army under General Montgomery invaded the south-east point at Syracuse, then to advance up east coast to the town of Messina.

US forces, American 7th Army, under the command of General Patton landed on the south-west coast at the Bay of Gela. Their target was to move northward towards the island capital Palermo, then to move east to link up with British forces at Messina.

Sicily would be used as the Allied invasion platform for mainland Europe, Italy, and the long awaited second front.

Date : 22nd July 1943.

General Patton's 7th Army troops take the Sicilian capital of Palermo.

Date : 25th July 1943.

The invasion of Sicily, and the probability of an Italian invasion by the Allies, proved disastrous for Italian dictator Mussolini. Mussolini loses backing from the Fascist Grand Council, and is arrested and imprisoned. Pietro Badoglio becomes the new Italian Prime Minister.

Date : 17th August 1943.

Allied armies reach Messina on the island of Sicily. General Patton's 7th Army arriving a few hours before Monty's 8th Army. Although Field Marshal Kesselring managed to evacuate over 100,000 Axis troops to the Italian mainland, the north African campaign and the invasion of Sicily had taken its toll on both the German and Italian armies, either taken prisoner or killed.

Date : 17th August 1943.

USAF operational daylight raids on Regensburg and Schweinfurt start.

An operation against a ball bearing factory in a two wave attack on two targets deep inside Nazi Germany. The first wave targeted an aircraft factory at Regensburg, the second wave would hit the ball bearing factory at Schwienfurt. The operation proved disastrous for the Americans, and would be cancelled in October.

Date : 23rd August 1943.

The Soviet Red Army made swift gains on the southern front, retaking many towns that included Kharkov, which pushed the Nazis further and further back.

 

 

BRITISH AIR RAID ON PEENEMÜNDE SECRET BASE :

Date : 18th August 1943.

The RAF mount a 600 bomber raid on Germany's secret test base on the Baltic coast. The Peenemünde base was being used to develop Hitler's 'Wonder Weapons' V1 and V2 under the direction of German rocket scientist Dr. Wernher von Braun.

Date : 28th August 1943.

After the army testing grounds at Peenemünde had been destroyed by bombs, Dora is created as a sub-camp of Concentration Camp Buchenwald, with an intention to relocated rocket testing and production out of reach of Allied bombing attacks. Dora would supply the slave labour.

After the British raid on Peenemünde the SS took control over the German rocket programme.

 

 

ALLIED ITALIAN CAMPAIGN ADVANCES :

Date : 3rd September 1943.

With Sicily secured by the Allies, and the invasion of mainland Italy pending, the new Italian Prime Minister Pietro Badoglio signed an Armistice with the Allies. Although the Armistice was signed it would not announced. The same day the Allies invaded mainland Italy by crossing the Straits of Messina and landed in Calabria, on the southern most tip.

Date : 8th September 1943.

Italians announced their surrender to the Allies, and the Nazis moved and occupied the Italian capital Rome.

Date : 9th September 1943.

Allies armies landed at Salerno in a second invasion of mainland Italy, 200 miles south of its capital Rome, and faced strong opposition from German forces.

Date : 12th September 1943.

On being arrested and deposed Mussolini had been held prisoner high in the Gran Sasso mountains. Hitler ordered his rescue, which was successfully carried out by Nazi commandos in a daring raid.

Hitler reinstalled Mussolini as a puppet leader for Nazi held territories in Italy.

 

 

SOVIET ADVANCES ON EASTERN FRONT :

Date : 25th September 1943.

The Soviet Red Army matched their advance on the southern eastern front, and advanced on the central eastern front, retaking Smolensk.

 

 

NAZIS BUILD UNDERGROUND ROCKET FACTORY :

Date : September 1943.

Prisoner transports brought workers to excavate the underground facilities built under Kohnstein Mountain. This facility built Wernher von Braun's V2 rockets.

 

 

ITALY DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY :

Date : 13th October 1943.

The new Italian government under Prime Minister Pietro Badoglio declared war on Germany. The new government was safely situated in Allied held territories in southern Italy. Nazi held territories had the reinstalled dictator Benito Mussolini as its head of state.

 

 

SOVIETS ADVANCE :

Date : 25th October 1943.

Soviets made more advances on the southern eastern front by the recapture of Dnepropetrovsk, in the Ukraine.

 

 

US ADVANCES IN THE PACIFIC :

Date : 1st November 1943.

US Marines under the command of Admiral Halsey land on the island of Bougainville, New Guinea. MacArthur's force and the Australian forces continued to advance through the islands of New Guinea.

 

 

SOVIETS ADVANCE ON EASTERN FRONT :

Date : 6th November 1943.

The Soviets made more eastern front gains as the Red Army recaptured the Ukrainian capital of Kiev.

 

 

BRITISH RAF RAID BERLIN :

Date : 18th November 1943.

RAF Bomber Command made its heaviest raid yet on Germany's capital Berlin, deep inside the Third Reich.

Allied Air Offensive :

 

 

BRITISH ADVANCE IN ITALY :

Date : 20th November 1943.

British 8th Army made swift advances along the eastern coast of mainland Italy, breaching Kesselring's defences at the Voltumo line. Kesselring's forces retreated behind a stronger defensive position named the Gustav line.

The Gustav line was a strong defensive position just behind the rivers of Garigliano, Rapido and Sangro. For the Allied forces crossing the rivers to engage the Germans it was a very dangerous and tricky operation.

On the 20th November 1943, the British 8th Army crossed the Sangro river.

 

 

CAIRO CONFERENCE :

Date : 22nd November 1943.

Cairo conference. British Prime Minister Churchill and US President Roosevelt meet with Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of the Chinese Nationalists.

 

 

TEHERAN CONFERENCE :

Date : 28th November 1943.

The Allied meeting with Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin in attendance at the Teheran conference in Iran. The redrawing of the map of Europe after the Nazis are defeated is discussed.

 

 

MITTELWERK ESTABLISHED :

Date : November 1943.

The "Mittelwerk" Company is founded in Germany, and orders for the assembly-line production of V2 rockets start being filled.

 

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For those visitors that have entered to this site, directly to this page, we would like to inform you that this page is part of a series of pages, within a section that acts as a backdrop to 'The Puzzle' project. 'The Puzzle' is a musical project that looks at different events from the 20th-21st Century.

This section is part of the 'World War II' zone. 'A Promise Of Peace' tells the story, in chronological order, of World War II.

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